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GEOL 1447 AMS Ocean Studies – Chapter Twelve

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GEOL 1447 AMS Ocean Studies – Chapter Twelve

AMS Ocean Studies – Chapter Twelve – COS Answer Form
(Complete as directed by your instructor)
Name: __________________________
Current Ocean Studies 12 Answers
1. (climate change) (ecosystem variability) (ocean acidification)
(carbon cycling) (all of these)
2. (high-power) (high-bandwidth) (both of these)
3. (globe) (Eastern Hemisphere) (Western Hemisphere)
4. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
(Oregon State University) (University of California, San Diego)
(University of Miami) (Rutgers University)
5. (gas hydrates) (hydrothermal vent systems) (tsunami propagation)
6. (5) (9) (11)
7. (does) (does not)

COS 12 – 1 A TRANSFORMATIONAL TIME
FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
1. As directed by your instructor, complete this activity. Also print the Weekly Ocean News
or Supplemental files as designated. (Check for additional News updates during the
week.)
2. Reference: Chapter 12 in the Ocean Studies textbook. Complete the Investigations in the
Ocean Studies Investigations Manual as directed by your instructor.
_________________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction
You could not have picked a better time to study oceanography! You are now in a
knowledgeable position to observe (and perhaps even participate in) the truly dramatic
transformation in the way ocean science is done.
Our understanding of Earth’s ocean has been growing at an exponential rate in recent
decades. Fundamental to this growth has been the expansion of observations by ships,
submersibles, satellites, profiling floats, gliders (drones), and deep-sea cabled observatories
made possible by accelerating advances in technology, communications, and cooperative
efforts at national and international levels. Transition from Expeditionary Science to Cabled Observatory Networks
Figure 1 places the principal phases of ocean exploration into historical perspective. The
sweeping transformation in the way ocean research is conducted extends from expeditionary
science (ship-based cruises), in situ probing (submersibles and profiling floats), and remote
sensing (satellites), to a new permanent presence in the ocean. Major initiatives are
underway for the development and operation of deep-sea cabled observatories (DCOs)
which are expected to become major components of this new way to investigate the ocean
environment. Figure 1. Principal phases of ocean exploration showing the advent of deep-sea
cabled observatories (DCOs). COS 12 – 2 U.S. and Canada, along other countries around the world, have been constructing deep-sea
cabled observatories, many of which are now at least partially operational. These
observatories are networked sensor grids designed to collect ocean and seafloor observations
simultaneously, and continuously investigate phenomena ranging from episodic, short-lived
events (e.g., tectonic, volcanic, biological) to longer-term events or changes (e.g., circulation
patterns, climate change, ocean acidification, ecosystem trends).
The U.S. DCO effort has two major components: