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CRJ 220 Week 8 Exam 3 Strayer Latest

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CRJ 220 Week 8 Exam 3 Strayer Latest

CRJ 220 CRJ/220 CRJ220 Week 8 Exam 3 (STRAYER)

  1. Taking what appears to be moral behavior and explaining it instead in terms of self-interest is a strategy known as:
  2. “Gut feelings” about right and wrong that seem to arise within our consciousness without us being aware of why or how they arose are sometimes referred to as:

  3. To willingly accept some cost to ourselves in order to ensure that those who violate laws and social norms suffer consequences for their behavior is referred to as:

  4. Altruistic acts are those

  5. Which of the following refers to the idea that we sometimes set aside our own interests for the sake of others because we expect that, in the future, others will do the same for us?

  6. Values and behaviors that are (or appear to be) shared by all human beings, everywhere, are referred to as:

  7. Which of the following refers to a form of human motivation whereby our decisions and actions are motivated primarily (if not exclusively) by our own interests?

  8. Which of the following hypothetical attitudes most closely resembles the notion that life is a “zero-sum game”?

  9. When we embody a “wholeness” or, in Plato’s words, “inner balance” in our personal and professional lives which comes from choosing and acting with consistency and in light of a conception of justice and the good life, we could be said to live and work with:

  10. To what are we referring when we discuss that, “set of rules governing how people are to treat one another, that rational people will agree to accept, for their mutual benefit, on the condition that others follow those rules as well”?

  11. According to Kohlberg, which of the following likely plays an important role in our progression through higher stages of moral development?

  12. Though Nazi leaders and war criminals had not committed “crimes” according to German law at the time, we (and the United Nations) might argue that they had committed:

  13. Engaging in lawbreaking behavior to achieve a reputation or gain status among peers would be most consistent with which of the following stages of moral development:

  14. According to Kohlberg, which of the following stages of moral development do the vast majority of people fail to reach?

  15. Which of the following ethical frameworks suggests that morality should be linked to human nature, including a concern for human dignity and universal human rights?

  16. Which of the following, based in research indicating gender differences in responses to moral dilemmas, suggests that we reserve a greater role for compassion, interpersonal relationships, and concern for and responsiveness to the welfare of others in our moral reasoning?

  17. Which of the following terms refers to the process of making an effort to understand how each person involved in a situation perceives it and, further, imagining how each person would feel if placed in the others’ position?

  18. At which of the following levels of moral development might we place a person whose moral values and principles are self-chosen, arrived at through independent reflection?

  19.  Carol Gilligan’s work on moral development implies that morality may develop out of two different orientations: a “male” approach focusing on __________________, and a “female” approach grounded in ____________________.

  20. Using drugs to earn respect from one’s peers most closely resembles the reasoning characteristic of which level of moral development?

  21. Those who utilize the internet (e.g., chat rooms) to exploit children for sexual purposes are commonly referred to as:

  22. An agreement between a criminal defendant and the prosecution whereby the prosecution reduces charges or recommends a reduced sentence in exchange for a guilty plea is referred to as a:

  23. Which of the following is a term commonly used to describe corrupt practices by law enforcement officers that are not purely egoistic in nature but, rather, done to achieve the “good” ends of protecting the community?

  24. Though both emphasize consequences, utilitarian differs from ethical egoism in that:

  25. Which of the following is not a technique of deceptive interrogation?

  26. Which of the following statements is most likely to be used to advocate ethical egoism?

  27. Bentham suggested that, when contemplating decisions and actions, we can quantify potential pleasures and pains along a number of dimensions. He referred to this process of quantification as:

  28. Which of the following concepts best captures the utilitarian notion that each person’s welfare is equally important and, thus, that no one person’s happiness should be regarded as more important than any other person’s?

  29. Which of the following principles approves or disapproves of an action according to its tendency to promote happiness for the greatest number of people?

  30. In contrast to Bentham, John Stuart Mill argued that happiness or pleasure should be understood:

  31. Kantian (deontological) ethics justifies criminal punishment on which of the following grounds:

  32. For Kant, the focus of the moral life is:

  33. Which of the following serves, in theory, to prevent crime by physically preventing an offender from repeating criminal actions?

  34. Moral principles or moral rules such as “never kill an innocent human being” might be described as:

  35. Which of the following was not described by W.D. Ross as a prima facie duty?

  36. Which of the following key deontological concepts refers to the idea that criminal punishment should “fit the crime”?

  37. _________________ imperatives direct behavior if a desired goal is to be achieved, whereas __________________ imperatives are absolute and ought to be followed always.

  38. The idea that we should treat ourselves and others as ends and never as means only is premised upon the more fundamental notion that all human beings have:

  39. Things we are morally obligated not to do (e.g., lie, cheat, exploit others) can be termed:

  40. Prima facie duties are different from categorical duties in that: